RUF Jugendreisen
  me, myself and I

Gratis bloggen bei


Hi everybody !

My name is Michelle and this is my blog for Mr Gibbons`class "How to make a dictionary" in WS 2007/2008. On this side you will find my learners`diary, homework, a glossary and quizzes. Feel free to have a look , but please don`t copy something from it.

Have fun,


23.11.07 16:15







Introduction:Organisation, Signs, Text Linguistics



Defining “definition“



Architecture of a dictionary



Dictionaries as databases



Types of lexical information



Word forms: orthography, phonology



Internal word structure: morphology



Internal word structure: syntax



Word meanings:semantics



Word meanings: pragmatics






Computational lexicography: concordances



Revision phase



Revision phase






Announcement&discussion of results

17.1.08 20:04

18.1.08 22:42


acoustic phonetics: it`s about speech wave transmission

adjective: describes a noun or pronoun

adverbs: describes or gives more information about a verb, adjective, adverb or phrase

allomorphs: realization of morphemes in different contexts; any of the variant forms of a morpheme

antonym: the opposite of something (e.g. high and low)

articles: any of the English words 'a', 'an' and 'the' or words in other languages that do the same job as these

articulatory phonetics: about speech production

auditory phonetics: it`s about speech perception

Basic syllable structure (English): CCCVVCCC

bicentric compound: coordinative compound e.g. whiskey soda (a whisky-soda is whisky and soda)

circular definition: starting and ending at the same point, “a rose is a rose is a rose” (by Gertrude Stein)

column: a list of fields in the same row position

Compounding: 2 or more stems, changes meaning (for example:lamp+ post = lamp-post);branch of word formation; new words created by putting two stems together

concordance: an index of all word in a text or corpus of text showing every contextual occurance of a word

content: is the meaning of a word, as e.g. the definition of a word or examples of the usage

definiendum: what is to be defined

definiens: what defines the defiendum

definite article: the (also see: article)

definition: a statement that explains the meaning of a word or phrase:

Derivation: one derivational stem+ affix, changes meanings

derived stem: a derived stem is either a root (zero derivation) or a derived stem with an affix

dictionary: book consisting of an alphabetical list of words with their meaning; alphabetically ordered reference book of terms realting to a particular subject

differentia specifica: a definition by specific differences

encyclopedia: book or set of books containing facts about many subjects, usually in alphabetical order

explanation: the details or reasons that someone gives to make something clear or easy to understand:

form: information is related to the appearance of a word, like e.g. the spelling or pronunciation of the word or IPA transcription

genus proximum: definition by presenting the nearest kind

grammatical morpheme: also called structural morpheme; closed set; can be free as grammatical words(prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs) or bound like affixes, suffixes (inflection and derivation)

Graphemes: smallest unit of writing that corresponds to a phoneme

hyperonym: word which is superordinated to many words of the same word fields

hypertext: text either with conventional hierachical parts or as a complex network of parts, for example any document on the World Wide Web

hyponym: subordinated term. Opposite of hypernym

indefinite article: a (also see: articles)

Inflection: stem + affix, it relates words to grammatical and situational context; adapts a word into a context without changing its meaning

IPA: International Phonetic Alphabet ; international transcription system used for phonetic transcriptions

KWIC: KeyWord In Context

KWIC concordance: A KWIC (KeyWord In Context) concordance is a special kind of corpus-based dictionary.

lexical morpheme: also called content morpheme or root; open set (see also morpheme)

Macrostructure: the macrostructure of a dictionary is the organisation of the lexical entries in the body of a dictionary into lists, tree structures and networks. Types of macrostructure are semasiological and onomasiological

Megastructure: the megastructure of a dictionary is the entire structure of the dictionary, including the front matter, abbreviations and explanations of grammar, the body of the dictionary and the back matter

meronomy: hyrarchy of parts; semantic relation in which something is composed of different parts (Example: a roof is part of a house ).

Mesostructure: the mesostructure of a dictionary is the set of relations between lexical entries and other entities such as other parts of a dictionary or a text corpus

metadata: data about data

metalanguage: the typography and layout of a book, hypertext etc. ;the language that you use to talk about language

Metaphor: verbal models, except that their relation to reality is in general much more subjective

Microstructure: the microstructure of a dictionary is the consistent organisation of lexical information within lexical entries in the dictionary

Models: models are ostensive definitions, in that they are intended to help us understand something with reference to reality, except that the pointer to a segment of reality is replaced by an iconic representation, of a segment of reality, which is simplified, stylised, idealised and has artefactual properties not shared by reality

Morpheme: the smallest meaningful parts of words; two main morpheme types: lexical and grammatical morphemes (see also lexical and grammatical morphemes)

Morphology: the study of word structure

Narrow phonetic transcription: all the details you find in a word (see also: Phonemic representation)

nouns: a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality

Onomasiological dictionary: writer`s dictionary, encoding dictionary,words listed after topics or meanings, also describes the word but gives synonymus words instead of translation or explanation; you know roughly what the word means and look in the wordfield.

ostensive definition: definition by showing/ demonstration

Phonemes: the smallest word-distinguishing segments, simple signs

Phonemic representation: only broad transcription to distinguish a word

Phonemic transcription: the transcription used in dictionaries, it is used preferably in IPA and it is the minimum amount of pronunciation to distinguish words

Phonetic transcription: the transcription used to give as many details of proniunciation as possible. It´s the actual pronunciation of phonemes and varies in different contexts

Phonology: study of the system of speech

possessives: my,your,his,her,its,our,their

pragmatics: studies the relationship between the speaker and the linguistic signs

row: a list of fields

Semasiological dictionary: reader`s dictionary,words listed in alphabetical order, pronunciation hints, mostly gives translation or description for the word;you have an appearance and are looking for a meaning; the basic form is a table

semantic field: word field of related words

semantics: study of meaning

Standard dictionary definition: X is a Y kind of Z

stem: a stem is a root (simplest case) or a stem plus an affix (complex cases), has lexical meaning

structure: arrangement of objects in a certain orderin relation to each other

subordinate sentence:

syllables: the word distinguishing phoneme configurations

synonym:two words which have the same meaning

syntax: study of the structure of a sentence

table: a list of rows

Taxonomy: is the science of classification according to a pre-determined system, with the resulting catalogue used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis, or information retrieval. (From the Greek word taxis (arrangement) and nomos (law)

text linguistics: is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as commnication systems. Its original aims lay in uncovering and describing text grammars. The application of text linguistics has, however, evolved from this approach to a point in which text is viewed in much broader terms that go beyond a mere extension of traditional grammar towards an entire text. Text linguistics takes into account the form of a text, but also its setting, i.e. the way in which it is situated in an interactional, communicative context. Both the author of a (written or spoken) text as well as addressee its dare taken into consideration in their respective (social and/or institutonal) roles in the specific communicative context. In general it is an application of linguistic analysis at the much broader level of text, rather than just a sentence or word.

text: a written or printed work regarded in terms of content rather than form. 2 the main body of a book or other work as distinct from appendices, illustrations, etc. 3 written or printed words or computer data. 4 a written work chosen as a subject of study.

thesaurus: defining words in categories, an onomasiological dictionary

Verb: a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, such as hear, become, or happen.

website: a website is a hypertext document with embedded documents (can also be linked), which makes it a text. To see a website you have to use the internet (world wide web) to get connected to the site.

A set of interconnected webpages, usually including a homepage, generally located on the same server, and prepared and maintained as a collection of information by a person, group, or organization

Word formation: creation of a new word either by compounding or derivation

word: stem+inflection

www : world wide web


17.1.08 00:48

Lecture 12

Lecture 12

This lecture was about computational lexicography. We talked about KWIC concordance (Keyword in context).Mr Gibbon showed us how to get from a corpus to a lexicon. First you need to have a corpus, then you have two layers. The first one is Primary data, which means audio or video recording.You go over that transcribe it etc, which is part of the second layer. I guess the corpus is all about collecting and transcribing.

After that you have 4 layers, which I didn`t understand, but I think it`s about putting everything together (or maybe not ?!).


Then you have the 6 main steps in KWIC concordance construction.

1. Corpus collation

2. Tokenisation

3. Keywordlist extraction

4. Context collation

5. Keyword search

6. output formating 


18.1.08 20:37

Homework lecture 12

Homework lecture 12

Define a KWIC concordance

Remember the KWIC construction diagramme, describe what is done at each stage

Illustrate what is done at each stage, with examples from a short text

answer:A KWIC is a keyword in context and a concordance is a list of words in a text in which these words occur. A KWIC concordance is a special kind of preliminary, corpusbased dictionary.


First, there is corpus creation.You have a spoken text and transcribe it into a text.

Elizabeth watched as Ivan and Luke darted around the long grass in the field, jumping and diving to catch the dandelion seeds that floated in the air like feathery balls. (If you could see me now by Cecilia Ahern)

The second stage is Tokenistation, where you basically split the words and leave out the punctuation.

elizabeth watched as ivan and luke darted around the long grass in the field jumping and diving to catch the dandelion seeds that floated in the air like feathery balls

Third stage is Keywordlist extraction, which means that you list the words in alphabetical order in a keywordlist.































Fourth stage is that you combine the word with the word that is originally behind it and the word before (left and right side)

the air like

jumping and diving

darted around the

watched as Ivan

feathery balls

to catch the

the dandelion seeds

Luke darted around

and diving to

Elizabeth watched

like feathery balls

the field jumping

that floated in

long grass in

grass in the

floated in the

as Ivan and

field jumping and

air like feathery

the long grass

and Luke darted

dandelion seeds that

seeds that floated

in the field

in the air

catch the dandelion

around the long

diving to catch

Elizabeth watched as

Fifth stage is Keyword search, where you can put the keyword in.

Sixth stage is the output formating and that`s what you see.

Air :

the air like


jumping and diving


darted around the


watched as ivan


feathery balls


to catch the


The dandelion seeds


luke darted around


and diving to


elizabeth watched


like feathery balls


the field jumping


that floated in


long grass in


grass in the


floated in the


as ivan and


field jumping and


air like feathery


the long grass


and luke darted


dandelion seeds that


seeds that floated


in the field


in the air


catch the dandelion


around the long


diving to catch


elizabeth watched as

18.1.08 22:15

Lecture 11

Lecture 11

In the first lecture after christmas we started off with revising.We said that the largest possible syllable in English consists of 6 morphemes. We searched for words to match a morpheme consiting of one syllable up to a morpheme consisting of four syllables.

Morpheme consisting of one syllable: cat

Morpheme consisting of two syllables: hello

Morpheme consisting of three syllables: carnival

Morpheme consisting of four syllables: secretary

Then we revised semantics.

We were looking for words which have a sense but no reference and we said that for example fictional animals like dragons don`t have that. We weren`t so sure about philosophy and love and decided that these were a kind of borderline words.

What I found very useful were the explanation of opposite (only two, eg. Good and evil), complementary (more than two;eg tall and short; there are different stages between tall and short) and inverse (eg buy and sell/ husband and wife). If I got that one right you can turn it around. For example X is the husband of Y. Y is the wife of X.

Later on we focused on pragmatics and did a brainstorming. We were asked to write our own personal definition of pragmatics as homework.



18.1.08 20:25

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