RUF Jugendreisen
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lecture 10

Lecture 10

We started this lecture by discussing our homework which was to identify as many syntactic facts in a text as possible.We found out that in German you have many cases. In English you don`t have that and the word order is therefore more rigid. In German you usually have the verb at the end . After that we revised Semantics.

Then, as it was the last session before christmas, Mr Gibbon introduced his familys` Plum Pudding recipe and we had to look for paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations in it. We also looked for taxonomies.

This lecture was really fun even if it was in a way higly linguistic.

18.1.08 19:44

lecture 9

Lecture 9

The topic of this lecture was grammar and to be honest I didn`t understand much of it as I´m really not at all talented in syntagmatic relations etc. For me the lecture was really hard.

What I understood was that there are simple sentences, coordinating sentences, subordinate sentences etc. and that a sentence consists of words, Phrases and sentences. So far so good !

The syntactic categories are nominal, verbal and glue categories. The transparencies after that are still a mystery to me !!!

18.1.08 19:31

Lecture 8

Lecture 8

In this lecture we talked about word formation. Mr Gibbon brought along a poem called „Jabberwocky“ to show us how you can play with language by creating new words. Inflection and Word formation are branches of morphology. In Inflection you have a stem + an affix. You subdivide word-formation into two parts: Derivation and Compounding. In Compounding you have two or more stems with a change of meaning and in Derivation you have one derivational stem+ affix and a change of meaning aswell. The inflection relates words to a grammatical and situational context.We then summarized morphology and talked about the branches in more detail.

To be honest I thought it was too much information for one lecture. I was a bit confused at the end of the lecture.

18.1.08 19:13

Homework lecture 8



Describe as many syntactic facts as possible about the example text-parts of speech, sentence types,syntagmatic relations, paradigmatic relations...

A McDonald`s employee was arrested, jailed and is facing criminal charges because a police officer got sick after a hamburger he ate was too salty. The employee accidentally spilled salt on some hamburger meat and told her supervisor and co-worker, who “tried to thump the salt off.“The employee was charged because she served the burger “without regards to the well-being of anyone who might consume it.“,2007-12-10

A (determina) McDonald`s (noun) employee (noun) was (verb, past tense) arrested (verb), jailed (verb) and (conjunction) is (verb) facing (verb) criminal charges (noun) because (conjunction) a (determina) police officer (noun) got (verb) sick (verb) after (preposition) a (determina) hamburger (noun) he (pronoun) ate (verb,simple past) was (verb, past tense) too (adverb) salty (adjective). The (determiner) employee (noun) accidentally ( adverb) spilled (verb, past tense) salt (noun) on (preposition) some (determiner or pronoun) hamburger (noun) meat (noun) and (conjunction) told (verb, past tense) her (pronoun) supervisor (noun) and (conjunction) co-worker (noun), who (pronoun) “tried (verb, past tense) to (preposition) thump (verb) the (determiner) salt (noun) off (adverb)“. The (determiner) employee (noun) was (verb, past tense) charged (adjective) because (conjunction) she (pronoun) served (verb) the (determiner) burger (noun) “without (preposition/adverb) regards (verb) to (preposition) the (determiner) well-being (compound) of (preposition) anyone (pronoun) who (pronoun) might (verb, past tense) consume (verb) it (pronoun).“


18.1.08 16:06

lecture 7

Lecture 7

In this lecture we read the poem “Chaos“ by Gerald Nolst Trenite (1870-1946).

Dearest creature in creation,

Study English pronunciation.

I will teach you in my verse

Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.

I will keep you, Suzzy, busy,

Make your head with heat grow dizzy.

Tear in eye, your dress will tear.

So shall I ! Oh hear my prayer.

Just compare heart, beard, and heard,

Dies and diet, lord and word,

Sword and swart, retain and Britain.

(Mind the latter, how it`s written.)

Now I surely will not plague you

With such words as plaque and ague.

But be careful how you speak:

Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;

Cloven, oven, how and low,

Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

Hear me say, devoid and trickery,

Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore,

Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,

Exiles, similes, and reviles;

Scholar, vicar, and cigar,

Solar, mica, war and far;

One, anemone, Balmoral,

Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel;

Gertrude, German, wind and mind,

Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

Billet does not rhyme with ballet,

Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet,

Blood and flood are not like food,

Nor is mould like should and would.

Viscous, viscount, load and broad,

Toward, to forward, to reward.

And your pronunciation`s OK

When you correctly say croquet,

Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,

Friend and fiend, alive and live.

Ivy, privy, famous; clamour

And enamour rhyme with hammer.

River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,

Doll and roll and some and home.

Stranger does not rhyme with anger,

Neither does devour with clangour.

Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,

Fiont, front, wont, haunt but aunt,

Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,

Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,

And then singer, ginger, linger,

Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge,

Marriage, foilage, mirage, and age.

Query does not rhyme with very,

Nor does fury sound like bury.

Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.

Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.

Though the differences aeem little,

We say actual but victual.

Refer does not rhyme with deafer.

Foeffer does, and zephyr, heifer.

Mint, pint, senate and sedate;

Dull, bull, and Goerge ate late.

Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,

Science, conscience, scientific.

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,

Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.

We say hallowed, but allowed,

People leopard, towed, but vowed.

Mark the differences, moreover,

Between mover, cover, clover;

Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,

Chalice, but police and lice;

Camel, constable, unstable,

Principle, disciple, label.

Petal, panel, and canal,

Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal.

Worm and storm, chaise, chaoes, chair,

Senator, spectator, mayor.

Tour, but our and succour, four.

Gas, alas, and Arkansas.

Sea, idea, Korea, area,

Psalm, Maria, but malaria.

Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean.

Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

Compare alien with Italien,

Dandelion and battalion.

Sally with ally, yea, ye,

Eye, I , ay, aye, whey, and key.

Say aver, but ever and fever,

Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.

Heron, granary, canary.

Crevice and device and aerie.

Face, but preface, not efface.

Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.

Large, but target, gin, give, verging,

Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.

Ear, but earn and wear and tear

Do not rhyme with here but ere.

Seven is right, but so is even,

Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,

Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk,

Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

Pronunciation-- think of Psyche !

Is a paling stout and spikey ?

Won`t it make you lose your wits,

Writing groats and saying grits ?

It`s a dark abyss or tunnel:

Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale,

Islington and Isle of Wight,

Housewife, verdict and indict.

Finally, which rhymes with enough--

Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough ?

Hiccough has the sound of cup.

My advice is to give up !

Every student had to read one line aloud so it took us a while to get through it. The poem is about pronunciation of English words. A word might be spelt similar, but is pronounced in a total different way, that`s what makes it hard for learners to distinguish.

I really enjoyed this lecture,even if it took a lot of time to get through the poem. It`s interesting to see so many words that look so similar but are pronounced so differently.   

19.12.07 17:39

Homework lecture 7


  • morpheme
Answer: a morpheme is the smallest meaningful part of a word
  • lexical morpheme:

Answer: a lexical morpheme is a root. It can stand on its own/ open set (e.g girl, boy,car, box...)

  • grammatical morpheme:

Answer: a grammatical morpheme is a structural morpheme. It can either stand on its own/closed set or is bound to a word. It only contains grammatical meaning.

  • stem:
Answer: a stem has lexical meaning and is often a root. You can build the affixes around the stem and hang grammatical morphemes behind it.
  • Derived stem:
Answer:due to zero derivation a root can be a derived stem
  • Compound stem:
Answer: is composed of two stems and can be either endocentric, bicentric or exocentric.

What is the diffrence between

  • inflection and wordformation:
Answer: an inflection carries grammatical meaning and is bound to the context of the word it is related to whereas with wordformation you can create completely new words. You combine stems or put affixes to it.
  • Derivation and compounding:

Answer: in compounding you combine stems and in derivation you add affixes. Both, derivation and compounding are combined in a synthetic compound, where you have compounds and derivations (eg bus-driver)


Collect 5 longish word and divide them into morphemes 


super- cilious-ness










-Try translating Jabberwocky

Jabberwocky (English)

by Lewis Carroll

`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe

All mimsy were the borogroves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

„Beware the Jabberwocky, my son !“

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch !

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The fumious Bandersnatch!“

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought-

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.

And, as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came !

One,two! One,two! And through and


The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

„And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

A frabjous day! Callooh! Calley!“

He chortled in his joy.

„Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogroves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

Jabberwocky (German)

by Michelle

Es war hell leuchtend und die Toves

wimmelten und schwirrten in der Wabe

Ganz mimmsig waren die borogroves

Und die Mome blöde gruben.

„Nimm dich in acht vor Jabberwocky

Das Maul, dass beißt , die Klaue die reißt!

Achte den Jubjub Vogel und meide

den rauchig-famosen Bänderschnapp!“

Er nahm das vorpale Schwert

Lange Zeit hatte er des Feindesbegehr gesucht

Nun ruhte er am Tumtumbaum

Und verharrte in Gedanken

Und als in kühlen Gedanken er dort stand

Der Jabberwock mit feurigen Augen

Kam schnaubend durch den tulgi Wald

Eins, zwei! Eins, zwei! Und durch und durch

Die Klinge schnickeschnack

ließ es tot und mit dem Kopf in der Hand

Galopplief er zurück

„Und schlugst du den Jabberwock?

Komm in meine Arme, mein Junge!

Ein hochjauchzender Tag! Hurra !Hurrey!“

Er gluckste vor Freude.

Es war hell leuchtend und die Toves

wimmelten und schwirrten in der Wabe

Ganz mimmsig waren die borogroves

Und die Mome blöde gruben.

comment: Well, the poem does not rhyme, but I did my best

7.1.08 22:01

Lecture 6

Lecture 6

In this lecture we talked about surface structure. We started off by revising terms and said that a dictionary is a complex sign, metalanguage is the language that you use to talk about language and that words in a dictionary are object language. Then we looked at pronunciation and focused on transcription. Transcriptionis the different views of sounds, In a dictionary you only need the phonic representation.There are two kinds of representing a word: the narrow phonetic transcription and the phonemic representation. In a narrow phonetic transcription you`ll have all the details you find in a word. In a phonemic representation you have the broad transcription to distinguish a word. We also talked about phonemes (smallest word-distingishing segments) and syllables ( word distinguishing phoneme configuration). In the second half of the lecture we talked about Spelling-to-sound-rules. An example for that is the word : ghoti which is pronounced fish. You have the “gh“ which is pronounced “f“ like in “enough“, “o“ which is pronounced as an “i“ as in “women“ and the “ti“ which is pronounced like the “sh“ in “nation“ .

18.1.08 18:37

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