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Homework

Homework lecture 12

Homework lecture 12

Define a KWIC concordance

Remember the KWIC construction diagramme, describe what is done at each stage

Illustrate what is done at each stage, with examples from a short text


answer:A KWIC is a keyword in context and a concordance is a list of words in a text in which these words occur. A KWIC concordance is a special kind of preliminary, corpusbased dictionary.

answer:

First, there is corpus creation.You have a spoken text and transcribe it into a text.

Elizabeth watched as Ivan and Luke darted around the long grass in the field, jumping and diving to catch the dandelion seeds that floated in the air like feathery balls. (If you could see me now by Cecilia Ahern)

The second stage is Tokenistation, where you basically split the words and leave out the punctuation.

elizabeth watched as ivan and luke darted around the long grass in the field jumping and diving to catch the dandelion seeds that floated in the air like feathery balls

Third stage is Keywordlist extraction, which means that you list the words in alphabetical order in a keywordlist.


air

and

and

around

as

balls

catch

dandelion

darted

diving

elizabeth

feathery

field

floated

grass

in

in

ivan

jumping

like

long

luke

seeds

that

the

the

the

the

to

watched


Fourth stage is that you combine the word with the word that is originally behind it and the word before (left and right side)

the air like

jumping and diving

darted around the

watched as Ivan

feathery balls

to catch the

the dandelion seeds

Luke darted around

and diving to

Elizabeth watched

like feathery balls

the field jumping

that floated in

long grass in

grass in the

floated in the

as Ivan and

field jumping and

air like feathery

the long grass

and Luke darted

dandelion seeds that

seeds that floated

in the field

in the air

catch the dandelion

around the long

diving to catch

Elizabeth watched as


Fifth stage is Keyword search, where you can put the keyword in.

Sixth stage is the output formating and that`s what you see.


Air :

the air like

and:

jumping and diving

around:

darted around the

as:

watched as ivan

balls:

feathery balls

catch:

to catch the

dandelion:

The dandelion seeds

darted:

luke darted around

diving:

and diving to

elizabeth:

elizabeth watched

feathery:

like feathery balls

field:

the field jumping

floated:

that floated in

grass:

long grass in

in:

grass in the

in:

floated in the

ivan:

as ivan and

jumping:

field jumping and

like:

air like feathery

long:

the long grass

luke:

and luke darted

seeds:

dandelion seeds that

the:

seeds that floated

the:

in the field

the:

in the air

the:

catch the dandelion

the:

around the long

to:

diving to catch

watched:

elizabeth watched as














18.1.08 22:15


Homework lecture 8

 

 

Describe as many syntactic facts as possible about the example text-parts of speech, sentence types,syntagmatic relations, paradigmatic relations...


A McDonald`s employee was arrested, jailed and is facing criminal charges because a police officer got sick after a hamburger he ate was too salty. The employee accidentally spilled salt on some hamburger meat and told her supervisor and co-worker, who “tried to thump the salt off.“The employee was charged because she served the burger “without regards to the well-being of anyone who might consume it.“


www.CNN.com,2007-12-10




A (determina) McDonald`s (noun) employee (noun) was (verb, past tense) arrested (verb), jailed (verb) and (conjunction) is (verb) facing (verb) criminal charges (noun) because (conjunction) a (determina) police officer (noun) got (verb) sick (verb) after (preposition) a (determina) hamburger (noun) he (pronoun) ate (verb,simple past) was (verb, past tense) too (adverb) salty (adjective). The (determiner) employee (noun) accidentally ( adverb) spilled (verb, past tense) salt (noun) on (preposition) some (determiner or pronoun) hamburger (noun) meat (noun) and (conjunction) told (verb, past tense) her (pronoun) supervisor (noun) and (conjunction) co-worker (noun), who (pronoun) “tried (verb, past tense) to (preposition) thump (verb) the (determiner) salt (noun) off (adverb)“. The (determiner) employee (noun) was (verb, past tense) charged (adjective) because (conjunction) she (pronoun) served (verb) the (determiner) burger (noun) “without (preposition/adverb) regards (verb) to (preposition) the (determiner) well-being (compound) of (preposition) anyone (pronoun) who (pronoun) might (verb, past tense) consume (verb) it (pronoun).“



 

18.1.08 16:06


Homework lecture 7

Define:

  • morpheme
Answer: a morpheme is the smallest meaningful part of a word
  • lexical morpheme:

Answer: a lexical morpheme is a root. It can stand on its own/ open set (e.g girl, boy,car, box...)

  • grammatical morpheme:

Answer: a grammatical morpheme is a structural morpheme. It can either stand on its own/closed set or is bound to a word. It only contains grammatical meaning.

  • stem:
Answer: a stem has lexical meaning and is often a root. You can build the affixes around the stem and hang grammatical morphemes behind it.
  • Derived stem:
Answer:due to zero derivation a root can be a derived stem
  • Compound stem:
Answer: is composed of two stems and can be either endocentric, bicentric or exocentric.

What is the diffrence between

  • inflection and wordformation:
Answer: an inflection carries grammatical meaning and is bound to the context of the word it is related to whereas with wordformation you can create completely new words. You combine stems or put affixes to it.
  • Derivation and compounding:

Answer: in compounding you combine stems and in derivation you add affixes. Both, derivation and compounding are combined in a synthetic compound, where you have compounds and derivations (eg bus-driver)

 

Collect 5 longish word and divide them into morphemes 

superciliousness

super- cilious-ness


doubtfulness

doubt-ful-ness


derestricted

de-restrict-ed


denationalization

de-nation-al-ization


breathlessness

breath-less-ness


 

-Try translating Jabberwocky

Jabberwocky (English)

by Lewis Carroll


`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe

All mimsy were the borogroves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.


„Beware the Jabberwocky, my son !“

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch !

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The fumious Bandersnatch!“


He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought-

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.


And, as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came !


One,two! One,two! And through and

through

The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.


„And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

A frabjous day! Callooh! Calley!“

He chortled in his joy.


„Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogroves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

Jabberwocky (German)

by Michelle

Es war hell leuchtend und die Toves

wimmelten und schwirrten in der Wabe

Ganz mimmsig waren die borogroves

Und die Mome blöde gruben.


„Nimm dich in acht vor Jabberwocky

Das Maul, dass beißt , die Klaue die reißt!

Achte den Jubjub Vogel und meide

den rauchig-famosen Bänderschnapp!“


Er nahm das vorpale Schwert

Lange Zeit hatte er des Feindesbegehr gesucht

Nun ruhte er am Tumtumbaum

Und verharrte in Gedanken


Und als in kühlen Gedanken er dort stand

Der Jabberwock mit feurigen Augen

Kam schnaubend durch den tulgi Wald


Eins, zwei! Eins, zwei! Und durch und durch

Die Klinge schnickeschnack

ließ es tot und mit dem Kopf in der Hand

Galopplief er zurück


„Und schlugst du den Jabberwock?

Komm in meine Arme, mein Junge!

Ein hochjauchzender Tag! Hurra !Hurrey!“

Er gluckste vor Freude.


Es war hell leuchtend und die Toves

wimmelten und schwirrten in der Wabe

Ganz mimmsig waren die borogroves

Und die Mome blöde gruben.

comment: Well, the poem does not rhyme, but I did my best


7.1.08 22:01


Homework lecture 6

Homework lecture 6

Pronunciation:

-List:

  • the consonants of German which do not occur in English : ß

  • the consonants of English which do not occur in German : th

  • the vowels of German which do not occur in English : ä,ü,ö

  • the vowels of English which do not occur in German : none


Spelling:

-List:

  • the characters of German which do not occur in English : ß

  • the characters of English which do not occur in German :

  • 5 English graphemes containing more than one character : gh, ou, oi, ty, yi,oa

  • 5 German graphemes containing more than one character : uh, ch, sch, au, eu





19.12.07 16:15


Homework lecture 3

Homework lecture 3


Take one of your dictionaries, and describe in as much detail as possible its

-megastructure
-macrostructure
-microstructure
-mesostructure


Megastructure : Collins English dictionary (14th edition 2005)

Macrostructure: monolingual semasiological dictionary,alphabetical order

Microstructure: e.g asthma (ass-ma) n illness caused by difficulty in breathing asthmatic adj, n

Mesostructure: references to pronunciation

18.1.08 16:49


homework lecture 2

Homework


1.What are dictionaries, lexicons, encyclopedias... „language“ ?

Answer:

dictionaries: book consisting of an alphabetical list of words with their meanings; alphabetically ordered reference book of terms relating to a particular subject (Collins English Dictionary)

lexicon: dictionary ; vocabulary of a language ( Collins English Dictionary)

encyclopaedia: book or set of books containing facts about many subjects, usually in alphabetical order (Collins English Dictionary)

language“: system of sounds,symbols, etc for communicating thought; particular system used by a nation or people;system of words and symbols for computer programming


2.What kinds of dictionaries are there ? Define the types !



3.How would you find the „best“ English dictionary ?

Answer: Personally, I don`t think that there is the „best“ English dictionary, because there are different kinds of dictionaries. What kind of dictionary you use depends on what you want to know. As there are semasiological (meaning of word) and onomasiological

(wordfield) dictionaries, you will find one information in the one and another in the other dictionary, not both in one. If I want to find out something in particular I look up the same word in several dictionary and choose the one that I like best.


Task: set up a questionnaire of questions about dictionaries, and ask 3 people to respond to it before next week


  1. For what purposes do you use a dictionary ?

  2. Which dictionary/dictionaries do you normally use ?

  3. Which online dictionaries do you know ?

  4. Do you have a dictionary at home or do you prefer online dictionaries ?


Question 1

P1: I use a dictionary to look up a word I don`t know or a technical term.

P2: I use a dictionary to look up words or synonyms.

P3: I use a dictionary to translate texts.


Question 2

P1: I normally use a pons english-german dictionary.

P2: I normally use the Collins English or Collins German dictionary.

P3: I normally use onlind dictionaries like leo.


Question 3

P1: I know leo and duden.de.

P2: I know leo.

P3: I konw leo.


Question 4

P1: Yes, I´ve got a dictionary at home, which I normally use. (Pons)

P2: Yes, I´ve got Collins` German dictionary and I`ve got Collins`English dictionary





22.11.07 19:03


Lecture 1

Defining definition

1.What is a definition ?

Answer: 1) A statement of the exact meaning of a word or the nature or scope of something 2) the action or process of defining 3) the degree of distinctness in outline of an object or image (source: Compact Oxford English dictionary)

2.How would you define definition in a dictionary ?

Answer: a definition is an explanation of an exact word meaning

3.Check dictionaries online and offline for their definitions. What kinds of information do dictionaries contain ? How are dictionary entries structured ?

Answer:

Example: turtle 

noun [C] plural turtles or turtle
an animal which lives in or near water and has a thick shell covering its body into which it can move its head and legs for protection
.

(source:Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary )

 
As you can see in the dictionary entry above, at first the word is put into a category,noun, and the plural is given (turtles). After that the genus proximum (an animal) is given and the differentia specifica (which lives in or near water...)

 


22.11.07 18:12





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