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Lecture 12

Lecture 12

This lecture was about computational lexicography. We talked about KWIC concordance (Keyword in context).Mr Gibbon showed us how to get from a corpus to a lexicon. First you need to have a corpus, then you have two layers. The first one is Primary data, which means audio or video recording.You go over that transcribe it etc, which is part of the second layer. I guess the corpus is all about collecting and transcribing.

After that you have 4 layers, which I didn`t understand, but I think it`s about putting everything together (or maybe not ?!).


Then you have the 6 main steps in KWIC concordance construction.

1. Corpus collation

2. Tokenisation

3. Keywordlist extraction

4. Context collation

5. Keyword search

6. output formating 


18.1.08 20:37

Lecture 11

Lecture 11

In the first lecture after christmas we started off with revising.We said that the largest possible syllable in English consists of 6 morphemes. We searched for words to match a morpheme consiting of one syllable up to a morpheme consisting of four syllables.

Morpheme consisting of one syllable: cat

Morpheme consisting of two syllables: hello

Morpheme consisting of three syllables: carnival

Morpheme consisting of four syllables: secretary

Then we revised semantics.

We were looking for words which have a sense but no reference and we said that for example fictional animals like dragons don`t have that. We weren`t so sure about philosophy and love and decided that these were a kind of borderline words.

What I found very useful were the explanation of opposite (only two, eg. Good and evil), complementary (more than two;eg tall and short; there are different stages between tall and short) and inverse (eg buy and sell/ husband and wife). If I got that one right you can turn it around. For example X is the husband of Y. Y is the wife of X.

Later on we focused on pragmatics and did a brainstorming. We were asked to write our own personal definition of pragmatics as homework.



18.1.08 20:25

lecture 10

Lecture 10

We started this lecture by discussing our homework which was to identify as many syntactic facts in a text as possible.We found out that in German you have many cases. In English you don`t have that and the word order is therefore more rigid. In German you usually have the verb at the end . After that we revised Semantics.

Then, as it was the last session before christmas, Mr Gibbon introduced his familys` Plum Pudding recipe and we had to look for paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations in it. We also looked for taxonomies.

This lecture was really fun even if it was in a way higly linguistic.

18.1.08 19:44

lecture 9

Lecture 9

The topic of this lecture was grammar and to be honest I didn`t understand much of it as I´m really not at all talented in syntagmatic relations etc. For me the lecture was really hard.

What I understood was that there are simple sentences, coordinating sentences, subordinate sentences etc. and that a sentence consists of words, Phrases and sentences. So far so good !

The syntactic categories are nominal, verbal and glue categories. The transparencies after that are still a mystery to me !!!

18.1.08 19:31

Lecture 8

Lecture 8

In this lecture we talked about word formation. Mr Gibbon brought along a poem called „Jabberwocky“ to show us how you can play with language by creating new words. Inflection and Word formation are branches of morphology. In Inflection you have a stem + an affix. You subdivide word-formation into two parts: Derivation and Compounding. In Compounding you have two or more stems with a change of meaning and in Derivation you have one derivational stem+ affix and a change of meaning aswell. The inflection relates words to a grammatical and situational context.We then summarized morphology and talked about the branches in more detail.

To be honest I thought it was too much information for one lecture. I was a bit confused at the end of the lecture.

18.1.08 19:13

lecture 7

Lecture 7

In this lecture we read the poem “Chaos“ by Gerald Nolst Trenite (1870-1946).

Dearest creature in creation,

Study English pronunciation.

I will teach you in my verse

Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.

I will keep you, Suzzy, busy,

Make your head with heat grow dizzy.

Tear in eye, your dress will tear.

So shall I ! Oh hear my prayer.

Just compare heart, beard, and heard,

Dies and diet, lord and word,

Sword and swart, retain and Britain.

(Mind the latter, how it`s written.)

Now I surely will not plague you

With such words as plaque and ague.

But be careful how you speak:

Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;

Cloven, oven, how and low,

Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

Hear me say, devoid and trickery,

Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore,

Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,

Exiles, similes, and reviles;

Scholar, vicar, and cigar,

Solar, mica, war and far;

One, anemone, Balmoral,

Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel;

Gertrude, German, wind and mind,

Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

Billet does not rhyme with ballet,

Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet,

Blood and flood are not like food,

Nor is mould like should and would.

Viscous, viscount, load and broad,

Toward, to forward, to reward.

And your pronunciation`s OK

When you correctly say croquet,

Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,

Friend and fiend, alive and live.

Ivy, privy, famous; clamour

And enamour rhyme with hammer.

River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,

Doll and roll and some and home.

Stranger does not rhyme with anger,

Neither does devour with clangour.

Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,

Fiont, front, wont, haunt but aunt,

Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,

Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,

And then singer, ginger, linger,

Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge,

Marriage, foilage, mirage, and age.

Query does not rhyme with very,

Nor does fury sound like bury.

Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.

Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.

Though the differences aeem little,

We say actual but victual.

Refer does not rhyme with deafer.

Foeffer does, and zephyr, heifer.

Mint, pint, senate and sedate;

Dull, bull, and Goerge ate late.

Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,

Science, conscience, scientific.

Liberty, library, heave and heaven,

Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.

We say hallowed, but allowed,

People leopard, towed, but vowed.

Mark the differences, moreover,

Between mover, cover, clover;

Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,

Chalice, but police and lice;

Camel, constable, unstable,

Principle, disciple, label.

Petal, panel, and canal,

Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal.

Worm and storm, chaise, chaoes, chair,

Senator, spectator, mayor.

Tour, but our and succour, four.

Gas, alas, and Arkansas.

Sea, idea, Korea, area,

Psalm, Maria, but malaria.

Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean.

Doctrine, turpentine, marine.

Compare alien with Italien,

Dandelion and battalion.

Sally with ally, yea, ye,

Eye, I , ay, aye, whey, and key.

Say aver, but ever and fever,

Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.

Heron, granary, canary.

Crevice and device and aerie.

Face, but preface, not efface.

Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.

Large, but target, gin, give, verging,

Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.

Ear, but earn and wear and tear

Do not rhyme with here but ere.

Seven is right, but so is even,

Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,

Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk,

Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

Pronunciation-- think of Psyche !

Is a paling stout and spikey ?

Won`t it make you lose your wits,

Writing groats and saying grits ?

It`s a dark abyss or tunnel:

Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale,

Islington and Isle of Wight,

Housewife, verdict and indict.

Finally, which rhymes with enough--

Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough ?

Hiccough has the sound of cup.

My advice is to give up !

Every student had to read one line aloud so it took us a while to get through it. The poem is about pronunciation of English words. A word might be spelt similar, but is pronounced in a total different way, that`s what makes it hard for learners to distinguish.

I really enjoyed this lecture,even if it took a lot of time to get through the poem. It`s interesting to see so many words that look so similar but are pronounced so differently.   

19.12.07 17:39

Lecture 6

Lecture 6

In this lecture we talked about surface structure. We started off by revising terms and said that a dictionary is a complex sign, metalanguage is the language that you use to talk about language and that words in a dictionary are object language. Then we looked at pronunciation and focused on transcription. Transcriptionis the different views of sounds, In a dictionary you only need the phonic representation.There are two kinds of representing a word: the narrow phonetic transcription and the phonemic representation. In a narrow phonetic transcription you`ll have all the details you find in a word. In a phonemic representation you have the broad transcription to distinguish a word. We also talked about phonemes (smallest word-distingishing segments) and syllables ( word distinguishing phoneme configuration). In the second half of the lecture we talked about Spelling-to-sound-rules. An example for that is the word : ghoti which is pronounced fish. You have the “gh“ which is pronounced “f“ like in “enough“, “o“ which is pronounced as an “i“ as in “women“ and the “ti“ which is pronounced like the “sh“ in “nation“ .

18.1.08 18:37

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