In this lecture we talked about about dictionaries and their definitions. We looked at extracts of a semasiological dictionary and an extract of an onomasiological dictionary of the entry “eddy“. The semasiological dictionary defined it as a “circular movement of water, wind , dust , smoke,etc“ whereas the onomasiological dictionary entry read “ motion in a continous circle. ROTATION, revolution, gyration, roll, circumrotation....“. We found out, that the semasiological dictionary, which is a standard dictionary gives the contextual definition of the word “eddy“. The onomasiological dictionary , which is for example a thesaurus gives an associated definition of the word “eddy“. The next step was to define what a semasiological and an onomasiological dictionary is. We said that in a semasiological dictionary you are looking for semantics, the meaning of a word. You have a word and don`t know the meaning (you have to decode the meaning). You have an appearance and are looking for a meaning. If you use an onomasiological dictionary, you roughly know waht the word means. In the dictionary you look in the wordfield given. You are not looking for the meaning, but for the word.
We then looked at the sign model again, which was introduced in the first lecture, again. IN te shared world we had media. A dictionary is a medium with a certain text structure, the dictionary arcitecture. As we know dictionaries contain information, semantics and pragmatics. Therefore dictionaries are signs. They are texts, texts have meanings,so have dictionaries. But dictionaries also describe signs (words), they define them. There are good definitions and bad definitions. A good definition for example is the Standard dictionary definition: X is a Y kind of Z. An example of a bad definition is a circular definition, because there you start at a certain point, but somehow don`t get to where you want. You are starting and ending at the same point. As bad as it may seem, but sometimes you just can`t avoid a circular definition.
The Standard definition X is a Y kind of Z is a definitio per genus proximum et differentia specifica, a definition by nearest kind and specific differences, for example is a poodle a dog (genus proximum) with thick curling hair ( differentia specifica).
A genus proximum hierarchy is a tree structure and is called a taxonomy. If you take poodle for example you a poodle is a dog, a dog is an animal and so on.
There are different types of definitions. You can have a definition by genera proxima (for example: a creature is a being, which is an object, which is a thing) or you can have a definition by enumeration of hyponyms or definitions by negation of co-hyponym ( e.g. not a plant, not an animal..). Those elements can of course all occur in one definition aswell.
I think this lecture was a bit packed, but as it wasn`t that difficult to understand it was ok.