RUF Jugendreisen
  me, myself and I

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Quiz No 1

Quiz 1

1.Why is a portfolio important ?

Answer: a portfolio is important, because then it is easier to get an access to the theme and you get familiar with the terms as you work on your portfolio constantly. You can find out what you understood and what you didn`t understand more quickly. A portfolio shall give you an overview about the class and its topics and you become familiar with the everyday use of electronic media.

2.What should a portfolio contain, and how are these components defined ?

Answer:a portfolio should contain a glossary of the most important technical terms, the answer to quizzes and tasks and a learners diary . It should be well structured, easy to use and should contain a table of content.

Glossary: list of words, which are important for a particular theme. The definitions are given. The sources have to be named, because otherwise itwould be plagiarism.

Learner`s diary: summary of the lecture. You can emphazise what you personally found interesting( evaluation). A diary is good for discovering what you haven`t understood.

Quiz: a set of questions to make sure that you understood the theme which was discussed during the lecture and to think about it / keep it in mind after the lecture.

3.Why should the portfolio be on a website ?

Answer: The portfolio should be on a website, because it provides an easier access to everyone in class, especially if you have about 100 students or more in a class. You can communicate easier and faster for example via email. You also learn to use media and the internet.

4.How do you make a website ?

Answer: You can create a website using web editing software or you can use the server of the university and upload your html files there. Another possibility to the software is programming the side by yourself (with html). If you have never done a website before you can start with a weblog (blog), which is easier to create. You can structure the side as you wish,but in some cases the structure and appearance are already given by the provider. On the internet you will find various providers, where you can get a free website or weblog ( e.g,,,google.....) .


22.11.07 17:49

Quiz No.2

Quiz 2

1.What is text linguistics ?

Answer: Text linguistics are the properties of a text. It is a branch of linguistics and deals with texts as communication systems. Texts are analysed in terms of their overall structure and the setting of the text itself  (in terms of its place between author and addressee).

Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. Its original aims lay in uncovering and describing text grammars. The application of text linguistics has, however, evolved from this approach to a point in which text is viewed in much broader terms that go beyond a mere extension of traditional grammar towards an entire text. Text linguistics takes into account the form of a text, but also its setting, i.e. the way in which it is situated in an interactional, communicative context. Both the author of a (written or spoken) text as well as its addressee are taken into consideration in their respective (social and/or institutonal) roles in the specific communicative context. In general it is an application of linguistic analysis at the much broader level of text, rather than just a sentence or word.


2.What is a website ?

Answer: a website is a hypertext document with embedded documents (can also be linked), which makes it a text. To see a website you have to use the internet (world wide web) to get connected to the site.

A set of interconnected webpages, usually including a homepage, generally located on the same server, and prepared and maintained as a collection of information by a person, group, or organization.

3.What is a hypertext ? Give examples !

Answer: A hypertext is a www document. In general it is a text consisting of hierarchical text parts or a complex network of parts. So every website is a hypertext.

A computer-based text retrieval system that enables a user to access particular locations in webpages or other electronic documents by clicking on links within specific webpages or documents. (

A linkage between related information. By selecting a word in an article, more information about that subject is retrieved, which could be a definition, encyclopedic entry or another article. Hypertext is the foundation of the World Wide Web, enabling users to click on a link to obtain more information from a source anywhere in the world. (

4.What is a text, what are its main properties ?

Answer: A text is a sign.It has a certain structure and follows certain grammatical rules of the language it is written in. A text usually contains sentences, which consists of words, which consist of syllables, which consist of vowels and consonants, which are letters.

Put together the letters, words and sentences express meaning . The main properties of a text are : appearance, meaning and structure.

5.How do these properties relate

-to the mind ?

-to the world ?

Answer: As I said before, texts are signs with the main properties : appearance, meaning and structure. The world of the mind consists of the formulation which are the text and the structure. The text gives a sense and a certain semantic interpretation to a text. Wheras the style and the media interpretation make the structure. So to say the world of the mind is about how you choose your meaning or how to say individual things according to your world of mind. The shared world is where your thoughts actually leave your mind . You kind of share it with the world through semantics and pragmatics on the one hand and media on the other hand. The shared world is about communication and can also be called „shared environment“. You have to make sure that people understand your signs and you understand the signs of others.

22.11.07 18:04

Lecture 1

Defining definition

1.What is a definition ?

Answer: 1) A statement of the exact meaning of a word or the nature or scope of something 2) the action or process of defining 3) the degree of distinctness in outline of an object or image (source: Compact Oxford English dictionary)

2.How would you define definition in a dictionary ?

Answer: a definition is an explanation of an exact word meaning

3.Check dictionaries online and offline for their definitions. What kinds of information do dictionaries contain ? How are dictionary entries structured ?


Example: turtle 

noun [C] plural turtles or turtle
an animal which lives in or near water and has a thick shell covering its body into which it can move its head and legs for protection

(source:Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary )

As you can see in the dictionary entry above, at first the word is put into a category,noun, and the plural is given (turtles). After that the genus proximum (an animal) is given and the differentia specifica (which lives in or near water...)


22.11.07 18:12

Open-ended quiz 1

Open-ended quiz

1.What is a dictionary ?

Answer: a dictionary contains lists of words in alphabetical order, which explain (decode) unknown words for example of a foreign language. There are also dictionaries which give you information about a subject (also in alphabetical order). To sum it up : dictionaries are texts, texts have meanings, dictionaries have meanings (for example dictionaries are signs)

2.What kinds of dictionaries are there ?

Answer: There are dictionaries , which decode a meaning and there are dictionaries , which describe a wordfield with synonymes.

3.What is the difference between a semasiological dictionary and an onomasiological dictionary ?


semasiological dictionary:If you are using a semasiological dictionary you are looking for semantics (meaning of a word). You have a word and you don`t know the meaning (you have to decode it). In general you have an appearance and are looking for a meaning.

In a semasiological dictionary the words are listed in alphabetical order.

Onomasiological dictionary:If you use an onomasiological dictionary you roughly know what the word means and look up the wordfield. In an onomasiological dictionary the words are listed (topics and meanings). The word is described by using synonyms instead of translations.

4.What other kinds of dictionaries are there ?

Answer: There is a huge number of dictioaries to be found. Therefore I will only name a few. For example : thesaurus, encyclopaedia, bilingual dictionary, Learner`s dictionary, online dictionary, monolingual dictionary, Dictionary of idioms....

5.What is Text Linguistics ?


6.What is Applied Text Linguistics ?


22.11.07 18:39

Open-ended quiz 2

Open-ended quiz 2

1.What are the main kinds of information in a

dictionary ?

Answer: The main kinds of inormations are metadata (data about data), for example author, publisher, name...) and lexical information such as form, structure and content.

2.Give examples of

-FORM information

-STRUCTURE information

-CONTENT information


FORM information:

the Form information contains for example the pronunciation of the word or the spelling.

The form information relates to the appearance of the word (oral or written)

STRUCTURE information:

the structure information relates to the position the word can have in a sentence or its construction itself.

CONTENT information:

the content information contains the meaning of the word.

3.What is the main kind of information which dictionary users are generally interested in ?

Answer: Dictionary users are interested in finding information about words. That can be the spelling, the pronunciation, the meaning, the structure etc. . You could also say that dictionary users are interested in finding signs for their communication with the shared world, may it be style, sense or semanic.

4.Find dictionary definitions of 5 different words of different parts of speech, and

-give examples of genus and differentia specifica

-give examples of other kinds of definition


to dance wearing shoes with metal pieces attached to the bottoms to make a rhythmic sound 

genus: dance

differentia specifica : shoes with metal pieces attached to the bottoms to make a rhythmic sound 

to: used to join two words, phrases, parts of sentences or related statements together

drive: to travel in (a car or other motor vehicle), esp. as the person who operates it, or to travel (a distance) in a motor vehicle 

hardly: only just or almost not 

we: 1 (used as the subject of a verb) the speaker and at least one other person when considered together or as a group:
2 used by a speaker or a writer to refer to the listener(s) or reader and the person speaking or writing:
Perhaps we could move on to discuss the next item on the agenda.

22.11.07 18:48

homework lecture 2


1.What are dictionaries, lexicons, encyclopedias... „language“ ?


dictionaries: book consisting of an alphabetical list of words with their meanings; alphabetically ordered reference book of terms relating to a particular subject (Collins English Dictionary)

lexicon: dictionary ; vocabulary of a language ( Collins English Dictionary)

encyclopaedia: book or set of books containing facts about many subjects, usually in alphabetical order (Collins English Dictionary)

language“: system of sounds,symbols, etc for communicating thought; particular system used by a nation or people;system of words and symbols for computer programming

2.What kinds of dictionaries are there ? Define the types !

3.How would you find the „best“ English dictionary ?

Answer: Personally, I don`t think that there is the „best“ English dictionary, because there are different kinds of dictionaries. What kind of dictionary you use depends on what you want to know. As there are semasiological (meaning of word) and onomasiological

(wordfield) dictionaries, you will find one information in the one and another in the other dictionary, not both in one. If I want to find out something in particular I look up the same word in several dictionary and choose the one that I like best.

Task: set up a questionnaire of questions about dictionaries, and ask 3 people to respond to it before next week

  1. For what purposes do you use a dictionary ?

  2. Which dictionary/dictionaries do you normally use ?

  3. Which online dictionaries do you know ?

  4. Do you have a dictionary at home or do you prefer online dictionaries ?

Question 1

P1: I use a dictionary to look up a word I don`t know or a technical term.

P2: I use a dictionary to look up words or synonyms.

P3: I use a dictionary to translate texts.

Question 2

P1: I normally use a pons english-german dictionary.

P2: I normally use the Collins English or Collins German dictionary.

P3: I normally use onlind dictionaries like leo.

Question 3

P1: I know leo and

P2: I know leo.

P3: I konw leo.

Question 4

P1: Yes, I´ve got a dictionary at home, which I normally use. (Pons)

P2: Yes, I´ve got Collins` German dictionary and I`ve got Collins`English dictionary

22.11.07 19:03

Quiz No 3

define „explanation“

Answer: an explanation is to make something clear and intelligible to somebody else

Question: Are semasiological macrostructures more like lists, trees, or networks?

Answer: semasiological macrostructures are lists.


Quiz:megastructure, macrostructure

1.What is the



of a lexicon ? Give examples.


megastructure: structure of the dictionary including the front matter, the back matter, the body of the dictionary and abbreviations of grammar.

macrostructure: organisation of the lexical entries of the dictionary into lists, tree structures and network.

2.What is a



dictionary ? Give examples.

Semasiological dictionary: a dictionary where you look up meanings of a word (semantics). You have a word and don`t know the meaning (you have to decode it).

example: house: a building used as a home; building used for some specific purpose   

Onomasiological dictionary: a dictionary where you look up wordfields. You roughly know the word and know what it means. You look up the word listed in the wordfield to make sure that you have the right meaning of the word in your mind.

example: to roll: spin, turn, movement,sweep along,.....

22.11.07 19:43

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