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Homework lecture 7


  • morpheme
Answer: a morpheme is the smallest meaningful part of a word
  • lexical morpheme:

Answer: a lexical morpheme is a root. It can stand on its own/ open set (e.g girl, boy,car, box...)

  • grammatical morpheme:

Answer: a grammatical morpheme is a structural morpheme. It can either stand on its own/closed set or is bound to a word. It only contains grammatical meaning.

  • stem:
Answer: a stem has lexical meaning and is often a root. You can build the affixes around the stem and hang grammatical morphemes behind it.
  • Derived stem:
Answer:due to zero derivation a root can be a derived stem
  • Compound stem:
Answer: is composed of two stems and can be either endocentric, bicentric or exocentric.

What is the diffrence between

  • inflection and wordformation:
Answer: an inflection carries grammatical meaning and is bound to the context of the word it is related to whereas with wordformation you can create completely new words. You combine stems or put affixes to it.
  • Derivation and compounding:

Answer: in compounding you combine stems and in derivation you add affixes. Both, derivation and compounding are combined in a synthetic compound, where you have compounds and derivations (eg bus-driver)


Collect 5 longish word and divide them into morphemes 


super- cilious-ness










-Try translating Jabberwocky

Jabberwocky (English)

by Lewis Carroll

`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe

All mimsy were the borogroves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

„Beware the Jabberwocky, my son !“

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch !

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The fumious Bandersnatch!“

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought-

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.

And, as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came !

One,two! One,two! And through and


The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

„And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

A frabjous day! Callooh! Calley!“

He chortled in his joy.

„Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogroves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

Jabberwocky (German)

by Michelle

Es war hell leuchtend und die Toves

wimmelten und schwirrten in der Wabe

Ganz mimmsig waren die borogroves

Und die Mome blöde gruben.

„Nimm dich in acht vor Jabberwocky

Das Maul, dass beißt , die Klaue die reißt!

Achte den Jubjub Vogel und meide

den rauchig-famosen Bänderschnapp!“

Er nahm das vorpale Schwert

Lange Zeit hatte er des Feindesbegehr gesucht

Nun ruhte er am Tumtumbaum

Und verharrte in Gedanken

Und als in kühlen Gedanken er dort stand

Der Jabberwock mit feurigen Augen

Kam schnaubend durch den tulgi Wald

Eins, zwei! Eins, zwei! Und durch und durch

Die Klinge schnickeschnack

ließ es tot und mit dem Kopf in der Hand

Galopplief er zurück

„Und schlugst du den Jabberwock?

Komm in meine Arme, mein Junge!

Ein hochjauchzender Tag! Hurra !Hurrey!“

Er gluckste vor Freude.

Es war hell leuchtend und die Toves

wimmelten und schwirrten in der Wabe

Ganz mimmsig waren die borogroves

Und die Mome blöde gruben.

comment: Well, the poem does not rhyme, but I did my best

7.1.08 22:01


acoustic phonetics: it`s about speech wave transmission

adjective: describes a noun or pronoun

adverbs: describes or gives more information about a verb, adjective, adverb or phrase

allomorphs: realization of morphemes in different contexts; any of the variant forms of a morpheme

antonym: the opposite of something (e.g. high and low)

articles: any of the English words 'a', 'an' and 'the' or words in other languages that do the same job as these

articulatory phonetics: about speech production

auditory phonetics: it`s about speech perception

Basic syllable structure (English): CCCVVCCC

bicentric compound: coordinative compound e.g. whiskey soda (a whisky-soda is whisky and soda)

circular definition: starting and ending at the same point, “a rose is a rose is a rose” (by Gertrude Stein)

column: a list of fields in the same row position

Compounding: 2 or more stems, changes meaning (for example:lamp+ post = lamp-post);branch of word formation; new words created by putting two stems together

concordance: an index of all word in a text or corpus of text showing every contextual occurance of a word

content: is the meaning of a word, as e.g. the definition of a word or examples of the usage

definiendum: what is to be defined

definiens: what defines the defiendum

definite article: the (also see: article)

definition: a statement that explains the meaning of a word or phrase:

Derivation: one derivational stem+ affix, changes meanings

derived stem: a derived stem is either a root (zero derivation) or a derived stem with an affix

dictionary: book consisting of an alphabetical list of words with their meaning; alphabetically ordered reference book of terms realting to a particular subject

differentia specifica: a definition by specific differences

encyclopedia: book or set of books containing facts about many subjects, usually in alphabetical order

explanation: the details or reasons that someone gives to make something clear or easy to understand:

form: information is related to the appearance of a word, like e.g. the spelling or pronunciation of the word or IPA transcription

genus proximum: definition by presenting the nearest kind

grammatical morpheme: also called structural morpheme; closed set; can be free as grammatical words(prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs) or bound like affixes, suffixes (inflection and derivation)

Graphemes: smallest unit of writing that corresponds to a phoneme

hyperonym: word which is superordinated to many words of the same word fields

hypertext: text either with conventional hierachical parts or as a complex network of parts, for example any document on the World Wide Web

hyponym: subordinated term. Opposite of hypernym

indefinite article: a (also see: articles)

Inflection: stem + affix, it relates words to grammatical and situational context; adapts a word into a context without changing its meaning

IPA: International Phonetic Alphabet ; international transcription system used for phonetic transcriptions

KWIC: KeyWord In Context

KWIC concordance: A KWIC (KeyWord In Context) concordance is a special kind of corpus-based dictionary.

lexical morpheme: also called content morpheme or root; open set (see also morpheme)

Macrostructure: the macrostructure of a dictionary is the organisation of the lexical entries in the body of a dictionary into lists, tree structures and networks. Types of macrostructure are semasiological and onomasiological

Megastructure: the megastructure of a dictionary is the entire structure of the dictionary, including the front matter, abbreviations and explanations of grammar, the body of the dictionary and the back matter

meronomy: hyrarchy of parts; semantic relation in which something is composed of different parts (Example: a roof is part of a house ).

Mesostructure: the mesostructure of a dictionary is the set of relations between lexical entries and other entities such as other parts of a dictionary or a text corpus

metadata: data about data

metalanguage: the typography and layout of a book, hypertext etc. ;the language that you use to talk about language

Metaphor: verbal models, except that their relation to reality is in general much more subjective

Microstructure: the microstructure of a dictionary is the consistent organisation of lexical information within lexical entries in the dictionary

Models: models are ostensive definitions, in that they are intended to help us understand something with reference to reality, except that the pointer to a segment of reality is replaced by an iconic representation, of a segment of reality, which is simplified, stylised, idealised and has artefactual properties not shared by reality

Morpheme: the smallest meaningful parts of words; two main morpheme types: lexical and grammatical morphemes (see also lexical and grammatical morphemes)

Morphology: the study of word structure

Narrow phonetic transcription: all the details you find in a word (see also: Phonemic representation)

nouns: a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality

Onomasiological dictionary: writer`s dictionary, encoding dictionary,words listed after topics or meanings, also describes the word but gives synonymus words instead of translation or explanation; you know roughly what the word means and look in the wordfield.

ostensive definition: definition by showing/ demonstration

Phonemes: the smallest word-distinguishing segments, simple signs

Phonemic representation: only broad transcription to distinguish a word

Phonemic transcription: the transcription used in dictionaries, it is used preferably in IPA and it is the minimum amount of pronunciation to distinguish words

Phonetic transcription: the transcription used to give as many details of proniunciation as possible. It´s the actual pronunciation of phonemes and varies in different contexts

Phonology: study of the system of speech

possessives: my,your,his,her,its,our,their

pragmatics: studies the relationship between the speaker and the linguistic signs

row: a list of fields

Semasiological dictionary: reader`s dictionary,words listed in alphabetical order, pronunciation hints, mostly gives translation or description for the word;you have an appearance and are looking for a meaning; the basic form is a table

semantic field: word field of related words

semantics: study of meaning

Standard dictionary definition: X is a Y kind of Z

stem: a stem is a root (simplest case) or a stem plus an affix (complex cases), has lexical meaning

structure: arrangement of objects in a certain orderin relation to each other

subordinate sentence:

syllables: the word distinguishing phoneme configurations

synonym:two words which have the same meaning

syntax: study of the structure of a sentence

table: a list of rows

Taxonomy: is the science of classification according to a pre-determined system, with the resulting catalogue used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis, or information retrieval. (From the Greek word taxis (arrangement) and nomos (law)

text linguistics: is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as commnication systems. Its original aims lay in uncovering and describing text grammars. The application of text linguistics has, however, evolved from this approach to a point in which text is viewed in much broader terms that go beyond a mere extension of traditional grammar towards an entire text. Text linguistics takes into account the form of a text, but also its setting, i.e. the way in which it is situated in an interactional, communicative context. Both the author of a (written or spoken) text as well as addressee its dare taken into consideration in their respective (social and/or institutonal) roles in the specific communicative context. In general it is an application of linguistic analysis at the much broader level of text, rather than just a sentence or word.

text: a written or printed work regarded in terms of content rather than form. 2 the main body of a book or other work as distinct from appendices, illustrations, etc. 3 written or printed words or computer data. 4 a written work chosen as a subject of study.

thesaurus: defining words in categories, an onomasiological dictionary

Verb: a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, such as hear, become, or happen.

website: a website is a hypertext document with embedded documents (can also be linked), which makes it a text. To see a website you have to use the internet (world wide web) to get connected to the site.

A set of interconnected webpages, usually including a homepage, generally located on the same server, and prepared and maintained as a collection of information by a person, group, or organization

Word formation: creation of a new word either by compounding or derivation

word: stem+inflection

www : world wide web


17.1.08 00:48

Lecture 2

In this lecture we talked about about dictionaries and their definitions. We looked at extracts of a semasiological dictionary and an extract of an onomasiological dictionary of the entry “eddy“. The semasiological dictionary defined it as a “circular movement of water, wind , dust , smoke,etc“ whereas the onomasiological dictionary entry read “ motion in a continous circle. ROTATION, revolution, gyration, roll, circumrotation....“. We found out, that the semasiological dictionary, which is a standard dictionary gives the contextual definition of the word “eddy“. The onomasiological dictionary , which is for example a thesaurus gives an associated definition of the word “eddy“. The next step was to define what a semasiological and an onomasiological dictionary is. We said that in a semasiological dictionary you are looking for semantics, the meaning of a word. You have a word and don`t know the meaning (you have to decode the meaning). You have an appearance and are looking for a meaning. If you use an onomasiological dictionary, you roughly know waht the word means. In the dictionary you look in the wordfield given. You are not looking for the meaning, but for the word.

We then looked at the sign model again, which was introduced in the first lecture, again. IN te shared world we had media. A dictionary is a medium with a certain text structure, the dictionary arcitecture. As we know dictionaries contain information, semantics and pragmatics. Therefore dictionaries are signs. They are texts, texts have meanings,so have dictionaries. But dictionaries also describe signs (words), they define them. There are good definitions and bad definitions. A good definition for example is the Standard dictionary definition: X is a Y kind of Z. An example of a bad definition is a circular definition, because there you start at a certain point, but somehow don`t get to where you want. You are starting and ending at the same point. As bad as it may seem, but sometimes you just can`t avoid a circular definition.

The Standard definition X is a Y kind of Z is a definitio per genus proximum et differentia specifica, a definition by nearest kind and specific differences, for example is a poodle a dog (genus proximum) with thick curling hair ( differentia specifica).

A genus proximum hierarchy is a tree structure and is called a taxonomy. If you take poodle for example you a poodle is a dog, a dog is an animal and so on.

There are different types of definitions. You can have a definition by genera proxima (for example: a creature is a being, which is an object, which is a thing) or you can have a definition by enumeration of hyponyms or definitions by negation of co-hyponym ( e.g. not a plant, not an animal..). Those elements can of course all occur in one definition aswell.


I think this lecture was a bit packed, but as it wasn`t that difficult to understand it was ok.   

17.1.08 17:55

Lecture 3

This lecture was about the architecture of a dictionary. The main parts of a dictionary are the megastructure, the macrostructure, the mesostructure and the microstructure.


The megastructure is the entire structure of a dictionary. It consits of :

  • the front matter
  •  abbreviationsand explanations of grammar
  • the body of the dictionary
  •  the back matter




In the macrostructure the lexical entries are organised in lists, tree structures and networks. Types of macrostructure are:
  • semasiological
  • onomasiological


The microstructure is the structure within the entries of a dictionary and has content, rendering and structure.



The mesostructure of a dictionary is the set of relations between lexical entries and other entities like e.g. the “mini-grammar” or the text corpus. The mesostructure is represented by links (e.g. between groups of lexical types) and cross-references.


I can`t say anything about the lecture itself as I wasn`t there, because I fell ill. 

When I went through the pages at home I didn`t quite get what a mesostructure is.   

17.1.08 19:27







Introduction:Organisation, Signs, Text Linguistics



Defining “definition“



Architecture of a dictionary



Dictionaries as databases



Types of lexical information



Word forms: orthography, phonology



Internal word structure: morphology



Internal word structure: syntax



Word meanings:semantics



Word meanings: pragmatics






Computational lexicography: concordances



Revision phase



Revision phase






Announcement&discussion of results

17.1.08 20:04

Homework lecture 8



Describe as many syntactic facts as possible about the example text-parts of speech, sentence types,syntagmatic relations, paradigmatic relations...

A McDonald`s employee was arrested, jailed and is facing criminal charges because a police officer got sick after a hamburger he ate was too salty. The employee accidentally spilled salt on some hamburger meat and told her supervisor and co-worker, who “tried to thump the salt off.“The employee was charged because she served the burger “without regards to the well-being of anyone who might consume it.“,2007-12-10

A (determina) McDonald`s (noun) employee (noun) was (verb, past tense) arrested (verb), jailed (verb) and (conjunction) is (verb) facing (verb) criminal charges (noun) because (conjunction) a (determina) police officer (noun) got (verb) sick (verb) after (preposition) a (determina) hamburger (noun) he (pronoun) ate (verb,simple past) was (verb, past tense) too (adverb) salty (adjective). The (determiner) employee (noun) accidentally ( adverb) spilled (verb, past tense) salt (noun) on (preposition) some (determiner or pronoun) hamburger (noun) meat (noun) and (conjunction) told (verb, past tense) her (pronoun) supervisor (noun) and (conjunction) co-worker (noun), who (pronoun) “tried (verb, past tense) to (preposition) thump (verb) the (determiner) salt (noun) off (adverb)“. The (determiner) employee (noun) was (verb, past tense) charged (adjective) because (conjunction) she (pronoun) served (verb) the (determiner) burger (noun) “without (preposition/adverb) regards (verb) to (preposition) the (determiner) well-being (compound) of (preposition) anyone (pronoun) who (pronoun) might (verb, past tense) consume (verb) it (pronoun).“


18.1.08 16:06

Homework lecture 3

Homework lecture 3

Take one of your dictionaries, and describe in as much detail as possible its


Megastructure : Collins English dictionary (14th edition 2005)

Macrostructure: monolingual semasiological dictionary,alphabetical order

Microstructure: e.g asthma (ass-ma) n illness caused by difficulty in breathing asthmatic adj, n

Mesostructure: references to pronunciation

18.1.08 16:49

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